OCEAN MEMORY

A guide to copyrights of pictures used (or to be used) and links to further documentation and related organisations.

Tags code is as follows:
# = used in book: "SAIL, in 80 pages around the world
* = used in Ocean Memory Game
$ = used in 2014 booklet
^ = used in 2015 booklet
@ = used in website

# 01 GOD -the Geometer

God as Architect/ Builder/ Geometer/ Craftsman, The Frontispiece of Bible Moralisée
Description: science, and particularly geometry and astronomy/ astrology, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. The compass in this 13th century manuscript is a symbol of God´s act of Creation. God has created the universe after geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
Circa 1220-1230, illumination on parchment, 34.4 x 26 cm (13.5 x 10.2 in)
Current location: Austrian National Library
Accession number : Codex Vindobonensis 2554, f.1 verso
Source/Photographer : archiv.onb.ac.at
©: anonymous artist, Public Domain Wilkipedia
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# 02 Katsushika Hokusai " the Great Wave of Kanagawa"

Katsushika Hokusai -the Great Wave of Kanagawa
The Great Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa Oki Nami Ura, lit. "In the well of a wave off Kanagawa"), also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was published sometime between 1830 and 1833
c. 1829-32, color woodcut, 25.7 cm x 37.8 cm (10.1 in x 14.9 in)

The Great Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa Oki Nami Ura, lit. "In the well of a wave off Kanagawa"), also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was published sometime between 1830 and 1833 in the late Edo period as the first print in Hokusai's series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjurokkei). It is Hokusai's most famous work, and one of the best recognized works of Japanese art in the world. It depicts an enormous wave threatening boats off the coast of the prefecture of Kanagawa. As in all the prints in the series, it depicts the area around Mount Fuji under particular conditions, and the mountain itself appears in the background.
Copies of the print are in many Western collections, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the British Museum in London, the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne, and in Claude Monet's house in Giverny, France, amongst many other collections.
©: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Wave_off_Kanagawa
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# 03 Stars & Constellations

This little picture is enormously popular across social media and internet forums. I think because it transfers a feeling, a feeling about being young and wondering about stars and constellations the first time in your life. It is the start of many interesting journeys and besides that, it is also a fine drawing. ©: artist unknown
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# 04 Across the Sea

'Across the Sea' from an antique american game by Milton Bradley Company 1910

Especially charming color lithograph showcasing the countries of Switzerland, Russia, Japan, Holland,Venice, and Egypt. Established by Milton Bradley in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1860, The Milton Bradley Company has become a household name in American games.
©: www.zandkantiques.com
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# 05 "Shipwrecked sailors attacked by man-eating sharks"

"Shipwrecked sailors attacked by man-eating sharks" - illustration from 'Sea and Land': An Illustrated History by JW Buel, 1887.
In J.W. Buel's 1889 book 'Sea and Land', the author laid out delightfully quaint illustrations of the Earth's flora and fauna. Many of these pictures detailed the myriad hilarious ways the animal kingdom eats humans, with creatures like the Japanese spider crab receiving a homicidal bad rap. A selection of doom and gloom from the Victorian era. .
©: from io9.com tags: 

# 06 "Fusta" from: Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, Itinerario (1596)

The fusta or fuste (also called foist or galliot) was a narrow, light and fast ship with shallow draft, powered by both oars and sail -in essence a small galley. It typically had 12 to 18 two-man rowing benches on each side, a single mast with a lateen (triangular) sail, and usually carried two or three guns. The sail was used to cruise and save the rowers´ energy, while the oars propelled the ship in and out of harbor and during combat. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusta
Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (1563 - 8 February 1611) was a Dutch Protestant merchant, traveller and historian. He is credited with publishing important information about Asian trade, such as the navigational routes that enabled the passage to the elusive East Indies to be opened to the English and the Dutch. This enabled the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company to break the 16th century monopoly enjoyed by the Portuguese on trade with the East Indies.
©: Public Domain en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Huyghen_van_Linschoten
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# 07 Cephalopoda

The Book: Stillman, S. (1912). The Cephalopoda of the Hawaiian Islands. From Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 32, 1912.
The Artist: J.H. Emerton "Eledone Verrugosa".

Class Cephalopoda
This class contains the cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. The giant squid is the largest of all mollusks. Most cephalopods are highly adapted for swimming. The body mass is very tall. There is no foot; the lower part of the body wall is drawn out to form a ring of arms, or tentacles, around the head. Among living cephalopods, only the nautilus (subclass Nautiloidea) has a complete external shell; extinct members of the subclass and the extinct ammonites (subclass Ammonoidea) had similar spiral shells. Members of the subclass Coleoidea (the squid, cuttlefish, and octopus), have an internal shell or no shell at all.
All cephalopods are carnivorous and possess a radula and powerful beaks. The nervous system and the sense of vision are highly developed. In most cephalopods the sexes are separate and reproduction requires copulation. Fertilization may occur inside or outside the mantle cavity. Cephalopods are worldwide in distribution and are found in all depths of the ocean. They are an important food staple for many animals, including humans.

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# 08 The True Principles of All Things

"The True Principles of All Things", an illustration by Dionysius Andreas Freher for the first English edition of the works of Jacob Böhme, 1764 tags: 

# 10 Octopus attacking the Nautilus

An octopus attacking the Nautilus, Illustration from "20000 Leagues under the Sea"
Twenty Thousand (20,000) Leagues Under the Sea (French: Vingt mille lieues sous les mers) is a classic science fiction novel by French writer Jules Verne published in 1870. It tells the story of Captain Nemo and his submarine Nautilus as seen from the perspective of Professor Pierre Aronnax. He was born in France in 1832 and lived to be fifty, and a very rich man. A prolific engraver, artist, illustrator, and sculptor, working primarily as a wood and steel engraver. He produced over 100,000 sketches in his lifetime, averaging 6 sketches per day for each day he lived. Even though he was an untrained, self-taught artist, who never used a live model, and who could not sketch from nature, his work is considered some of the most important in the entire engraving art world. ©: Public domain
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# 11 Anatomical Zodiac Man

The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry or Très Riches Heures) is the most famous and possibly the best surviving example of French Gothic manuscript illumination, showing the late International Gothic phase of the style. It is a book of hours: a collection of prayers to be said at the canonical hours. It was created between c. 1412 and 1416 for the extravagant royal bibliophile and patron John, Duke of Berry, by the Limbourg brothers. When the three painters and their sponsor died in 1416, possibly victims of plague, the manuscript was left unfinished. It was further embellished in the 1440s by an anonymous painter, who many art historians believe was Barthélemy d'Eyck. In 1485-1489, it was brought to its present state by the painter Jean Colombe on behalf of the Duke of Savoy. Acquired by the Duc d'Aumale in 1856, the book is now MS 65 in the Musée Condé, Chantilly, France.
The Anatomical Zodiac Man concludes the calendar. The twelve signs of the zodiac appear over the corresponding anatomical regions. It contains Berryés coat of arms of three fleurs-de-lis on a blue background. Such an image appears in no other book of hours, but astrology was one of Berry's interests, and several works on the subject were in Berryés library. The two figures are sometimes regarded as male and (looking out at the viewer) female, but Pognon finds both "strangely hermaphrodite", and intentionally so
© : Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%C3%A8s_Riches_Heures_du_Duc_de_Berry tags: 

# 12 Robinet Testard

Deux miniatures de Robinet Testard: "Animaux fabuleux d´Égypte", Livre des merveilles du monde, fol. 15v, 1480-1485 Paris, BN; et "le combat des pygmées contre les grues" légende rapportée par Pline l´Ancien, Livre des secrets de l´histoire naturelle, 1480-85
Robinet Testard (fl. 1470-1531) was a French medieval illuminator and painter, whose works are difficult to attribute since none of them was signed or dated. He is known to have worked for the family of Charles, Count of Angoulêon;me (1459-96) in Cognac, and made Valet de Chambre to the family in 1484. When the Count of Angoulêon;me died in 1496, Testard accepted service with the Count´s widow, Louise of Savoy, and is mentioned at the time of her death in 1531.
©:
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# 13 Sperm Whale, Greenland Whale Fishery

In the days before photography and mass media, pictures of whales were rare and while based in reality often fanciful. This example from the early 1800's shows a sperm whale from the "Greenland Fishery". While much more accurate than many early illustrations, there is still a great deal of artistic license or just plain inaccuracy. The shape is good and proportions reasonable (it's too "tall" though), but the lower jaw is too large and the expression is rather anthropomorphic. Strangest of all is how these 4 men have managed to drag a 60+ tonne whale (estimated from the proportions and size of the men) onto an ice floe.
Such pictures fed the public perception of whales and whaling. If you want to be particularly critical, you could say that they sanitized the whale fishery and made it seem far more benign and clean than it really was.
©: www.coolantarctica.com/gallery/whales_whaling/0001.htm
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# 14 Gustave Doré "Ancient Mariner"

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (text of 1834) By Samuel Taylor Coleridge
... "With sloping masts and dipping prow,
As who pursued with yell and blow
Still treads the shadow of his foe,
And forward bends his head,
The ship drove fast, loud roared the blast,
And southward aye we fled."...
©:
tags: Gustave Doré, Ancient Mariner

# 17 Natasha Lea

©: https://www.facebook.com/TheDesignSkeleton
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# 20 Armed Gurnard

Armed Gurnard
©:
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# 21 Boladora

Boladora
Boladora After John White, Date 1585-1593, via British Museum reg.nr. SL,5270.21 (Flying fish, leaf from a volume (now consisting of 113 leaves of drawings), associated with John White Pen and ink and graphite with watercolour, touched with bodycolour, and heightened with white (oxidised))
©: www.britishmuseum.org

Flying fish can be seen jumping out of warm ocean waters worldwide. Their streamlined torpedo shape helps them gather enough underwater speed to break the surface, and their large, wing-like pectoral fins get them airborne.
Read more: animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/flying-fish/

Flying fish actually glide rather than truly fly. They launch themselves into the air by beating the tail very fast and spreading their pectoral fins to use as wings. There are 52 different species of flying fish which are found in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Flying_fish
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# 22 Sea Urchin

Lamarck - Sea Urchins
Lamarck - Sea Urchins (detail) Jean Baptiste (Pierre Antoine) de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck [1744-1829], Echinus 136 -Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique des Trois Regnes de la Nature, Paris 1791-1798. From the pattern library of WikiMechanics.org. Photograph by D Dunlop.

Sea urchins are sea creatures that live in oceans all over the world. Similar to sea stars, sea urchins have a water vascular system. Their spherical shape is typically small, ranging from about 3 cm to 10 cm in diameter, and their bodies are covered with a spiny shell. The skeleton of a sea urchin is also known as the test. The shells within the test of these creatures are made up of packed, fitted plates which protect them from being damaged. As for the spines outlining their shell, these are movable and help the sea urchin to camouflage or protect itself from predators. Sea urchins can vary greatly in colour. Some of the most frequently seen colours are black, red, brown, purple and light pink. On the bottom side of a sea urchin there are five teeth that these organisms use to ingest algae and break down other foods they consume to survive. These five teeth continually grow throughout the sea urchin´s life. On the outside of their body, they also have hundreds of transparent tubes that emerge which allow them to stick to the bottom of the ocean or to move at a very slow pace. These unusual tubes are called tube feet". Their tube feet are much longer than the spines outlining their shells and they are also used by the sea urchin to trap food and in respiration.
Read more: tolweb.org
©: Public Domain tags: 

# 23 Land yachts

Land yachts
Simon Stevin built two land-yachts for Prince Maurice. He used them on the beach to entertain his guests. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_sailing

Toujours en Hollande fin du 16 ème siècle, l'ingénieur Simon Stevin entre au service du comte Maurice de Nassau. C´est alors "Stevin l´ingénieur" qui s´illustre par des inventions remarquables. La plus spectaculaire est le char à voiles qui avec une trentaine de passagers parcourt près de 80km en deux heures sur les plages de la mer du Nord de Scheveningen à Petten.
Histoire du char à voile

Different image: Currus Veliferi Illmi. Pr. Mauritii Nassouvii. (Prince Maurits' sailing-carriage, designed by Simon Stevin). Map maker : BLAEU, J. Amsterdam, 1649:
Prince Maurits' sailing carriages had been designed by Simon Stevin. The Prince, always accessible to new inventions of his old instructor, could not please the foreign ambassadors more than by inviting them for a ride in his carriage.
The big sailing-carriage could seat 28 persons and could reach a speed of seven miles per hour.
Land sailing : The Chinese had "wind-driven carriages" since the 6th century AD, during the Liang Dynasty, and eventually mounted masts and sails on large wheelbarrows.The earliest text describing the Chinese use of mounting masts and sails on large vehicles is the Book of the Golden Hall Master written by the Daoist scholar and crown prince Xiao Yi, who later became Emperor Yuan of Liang (r. 552-554 AD).He wrote that Gaocang Wushu invented a "wind-driven carriage" which was able to carry thirty people at once.There was another built in about 610 for the Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604-617), as described in the Continuation of the New Discourses on the Talk of the Times.
http://www.swaen.com/antique-map-of.php?id=17305
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# 24 Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama
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# 25 Christopher Columbus by Marie-Madeleine Gérard

Christopher Columbus  by Marie-Madeleine Gerard
Christopher Columbus, Italian Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish Cristóbal Colón (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa [Italy]- died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain), master navigator and admiral whose four transatlantic voyages (1492-'93, 1493-'96, 1498-'1500, and 1502-'04) opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the "discoverer" of the New World, although Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries earlier. Columbus made his transatlantic voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. He was at first full of hope and ambition, an ambition partly gratified by his title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea", awarded to him in April 1492, and by the grants enrolled in the Book of Privileges (a record of his titles and claims); however, he died a disappointed man.
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127070/Christopher-Columbus

©: portrait "Christophe Colomb" by Marie-Madeleine Gérard, reproduction: Wikipedia - creative commons
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# 26 Bathyscaphe

Bathyscaphe
A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.
In 1960 Trieste, carrying Piccard's son Jacques Piccard and Lt. Don Walsh, reached the deepest known point on the Earth's surface, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench.
The onboard systems indicated a depth of 37,800 ft (11,521 m) but this was later corrected to 35,813 ft (10,916 m) by taking into account variations arising from salinity and temperature. Later and more accurate measurements made in 1995 have found the Challenger Deep to be shallower at 35,798 ft (10,911 m).
The bathyscaphe was equipped with a powerful light, which illuminated a small flounder-like fish, putting to rest the question of whether or not there was life at such a depth in the complete absence of light. The crew of the Trieste noted that the floor consisted of diatomaceous ooze and reported observing "some type of flatfish, resembling a sole, about 1 foot long and 6 inches across" lying on the seabed.
In 1995, the Japanese sent an unmanned submersible to this depth, Kaiko, but it was later lost at sea. In 2009, a team from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution sent a robotic submarine named Nereus to the bottom of the trench.
On 25 March 2012, James Cameron reached the Challenger Deep in the Deepsea Challenger submersible.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathyscaphe ©:
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# 27 "Arctic Whaling Scene"

Arctic Whaling Scene -New Bedford Whaling Museum
Arctic Whaling Scene
Artist: attributed to Adam Silo
Date: ca. 1700
Material: oil on canvas
Dimensions: [H]16 3/8" [W]23 1/2" Framed: [H] 22 1/4" x [W] 29 1/4"
Description: Eight Dutch whalers are in the Arctic waters, and two whaleboats are in the immediate foreground pursuing two different whales (the tail of one can be seen while over to the right the head of another whale is visible). Polar bears standing on the ice floes look on the scene.
General Information about the New Bedford Whaling Museum is available at: www.whalingmuseum.org For information on obtaining reproduction rights or purchasing prints go to: www.whalingmuseum.org/shop/prints
photo number: 2001.100.4356
Or contact the New Bedford Whaling Museum Photo Archives at: 508-997-0046 ext.207 ©: photoresearch@whalingmuseum.org
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# 28 Flammarion

Flammarion
The Flammarion engraving is a wood engraving by an unknown artist that first appeared in Camille Flammarion's L'atmosphère: météorologie populaire (1888). The image depicts a man crawling under the edge of the sky, depicted as if it were a solid hemisphere, to look at the mysterious Empyrean beyond. The caption underneath the engraving (not shown here) translates to "A medieval missionary tells that he has found the point where heaven and Earth meet..."
© http://wikimechanics.org/premise
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# 29 Turritopsis dohrnii - Immortal Jellyfish

Turritopsis dohrnii - Immortal Jellyfish
About as wide as a human pinky nail when fully grown, the immortal jellyfish (scientific name: Turritopsis dohrnii) was discovered in the Mediterranean Sea in 1883. But its unique ability was not discovered until the 1990s.
news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/01/090130-immortal-jellyfish-swarm.html

After more than 4,000 years - almost since the dawn of recorded time, when Utnapishtim told Gilgamesh that the secret to immortality lay in a coral found on the ocean floor - man finally discovered eternal life in 1988. He found it, in fact, on the ocean floor. The discovery was made unwittingly by Christian Sommer, a German marine-biology student in his early 20s. He was spending the summer in Rapallo, a small city on the Italian Riviera, where exactly one century earlier Friedrich Nietzsche conceived "Thus Spoke Zarathustra": "Everything goes, everything comes back; eternally rolls the wheel of being. Everything dies, everything blossoms again. . . ."
Read more: www.nytimes.com Believe it or not, this jellyfish is biologically immortal. The jellyfish, Turritopsis dohrnii but formerly classified as Turritopsis nutricula, can revert back to its childhood stage through a process called transdifferentiation. It can only be killed by predation or by getting sick. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transdifferentiation © photograph Takashi Murai:
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# 30 Salp chain

Salp chain
Salp chain, Off shore, San Diego.
Four-inch (10.2-centimeter) sea salps link together to make luminous chains up to fifteen feet (4.6 meters) long!
©: Mick McMurray
www.earthandseaphoto.com, video.nationalgeographic.com/video/sea_salps?source=relatedvideo tags: 

# 31 Monstrum Marinum rudimenta habitus Episcopi referens

Monstrum Marinum rudimenta habitus Episcopi referens
"Monstrorum Historia" Woodcut illustrations from Aldrovandi's 'History of Monsters'
"Ulissi Aldrovandi (Aldrovandus) (1522-1605) graduated from Padua and Bologna Universities with degrees in law, philosophy and medicine and taught logic to supplement the occasional patronage bestowed on him by his cousin, the Pope.
During nearly a year of confinement in Rome while fighting a heresy charge, Aldrovandi developed a strong interest in the natural world. He began to collect all manner of specimens which apparently came to constitute a formidable natural history museum for those that visited him.
He travelled quite a bit in his quest for specimens and recorded his observations in some 4000 manuscripts, a number of which were published during his lifetime. His writings include studies in ornithology, medicine, hydrology, zoology, botany and, as can be imagined from the embellished and fantastical images here, a paper on mythical creatures as well (among others).
Aldrovandi was instrumental in establishing the botanical gardens in Bologna and his alma mater there awarded him the first Professorial chair in natural science." © text: bibliodyssey.blogspot.nl/2011/07/monstrorum-historia.html

The sea bishop or bishop-fish was a type of sea monster reported in the 16th century. According to legend, it was taken to the King of Poland, who wished to keep it. It was also shown to a group of Catholic bishops, to whom the bishop-fish gestured, appealing to be released. They granted its wish, at which point it made the sign of the cross and disappeared into the sea.
Another was supposedly captured in the ocean near Germany in 1531. It refused to eat and died after three days. It was described and pictured in the fourth volume of Conrad Gesner's famous Historiae animalium.

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# 32 Ulysses and the Sirens

Ulysses and the Sirens
One of the earliest records of bewitching sea-women appears in the Odyssey, where Ulysses, the hero of Homer´s epic poem, is warned by the sorceress Circe about the sirens whose singing lures sailors to a grisly death shipwrecked on the rocks. Odysseus convinces his crew to stuff wax in their ears so that the mesmerizing song won´t affect them, but has himself tied to the mast and more or less goes ballistic listening. The earliest ceramic paintings depict the sirens as women with the wings of sparrows, but in later folklore this image was changed to one closer resembling a modern mermaid (as in the 1909 painting by Herbert James Draper, above). The word itself survives in the Latin root for the words for mermaid in languages such as Italian (sirena) and French (sirene).

They arrive back at Circe´s island and bury Elpenor. Circe finds out from Ulysses (Odysseus in Greek) what exactly Teiresias’ prophecy was, and then warns him of major dangers ahead of him on his journey home.
metaphrastes.wordpress.com/2014/04/04/homers-odyssey-book-xii-selections ©: artists: Herbert James draper (1863- 1920) Picture: Public Domain Wikimedia
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# 33 Polynesian Navigation Aid

Polynesian Navigation Aid
Polynesian navigation device showing directions of winds, waves and islands, c. 1904
Polynesian navigation is a system of navigation used by Polynesians to make long voyages across thousands of miles of open ocean. Navigators travel to small inhabited islands using only their own senses and knowledge passed by oral tradition from navigator to apprentice, often in the form of song. In order to locate directions at various times of day and year, Polynesian navigators memorize important facts: the motion of specific stars, so where they would rise and set on the horizon of the ocean; weather and the seasons of travel; wildlife species (which gather at particular positions); the direction, size, and speed of ocean waves; colors of the sea and sky, especially how clouds would cluster at the locations of some islands; and angles for approaching harbours.
These wayfinding techniques along with their unique outrigger canoe construction methods have been kept as guild secrets. Generally each island maintained a guild of navigators who had very high status and in times of famine or difficulty these navigators could trade for aid or evacuate people to neighboring islands. As of 2014, the original methods of Polynesian navigation are still taught in the Polynesian outlier of Taumako Island in the Solomon Islands.
©: Public Domain Wikimedia
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# 34 Marine timekeeper, H1.

John Harrison Marine Timekeeper H-1
This is the first experimental marine timekeeper made by John Harrison in Barrow-on-Humber between 1730 and 1735 as a first step towards solving the longitude problem and winning the great £20,000 prize offered by the British Government. Now known as 'H1', the timekeeper is unaffected by the motion of a ship owing to its two interconnected swinging balances. It compensates for changes in temperature and thanks to extensive anti-friction devices, runs without any lubrication.
©: http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/79139.html
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# 35 "Utopia" by Thomas More

Utopia - Thomas More
Hand-tinted map of the Island of Utopia from A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia by Thomas Moore, 1516
Utopia, or the land of nowhere, is undoubtedly the most famous work of Thomas More (Tomas More). The idea was to create a perfect world where all men are equal and maintain an idyllic relationship with their natural surroundings. The book was born of accounts by navigator and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci) and referred to the volcanic archipelago Fernando de Noronha, currently located in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Since its early editions we can see illustrations (maps) of this imagined territory.
Utopia Island, Agustana Library, 1516 edition
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# 36 'Caribbean Mermaid'

Caribbean Mermaid
"The thought of an underwater, human-like person occur in mythologies and folklore all over the world.
The first stories of Mermaids occured in ancient Assyria around 1, 000 years B.C.. In the Arabic story compendium, One Thousand and One Nights, an underwater culture appears, although these creatures are identical to humans, except the ability to breathe water. Around Ireland and the British Isles, tales were told about creatures like Murduachas, Muireartach ("Sea-witches"), Merrows, Selkies, and so on. The Greek variation is a creature called the Siren, who lures seamen to crash with their ships against the cliffs by singing otherwordly, beautiful songs. "
© spiderwick.wikia.com/wiki/Merfolk tags: 

# 37

whale, stranded on the Dutch coast
The engraving by William van der Gouwen shows a 20 m (65.6 ft) long whale, stranded on the Dutch coast between Scheveningen and Katwijk on 3 February 1598 ©:
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# 38

©: magictransistor: Zdenek Burian ~ 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (Source: tomorrowandbeyond)
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# 39 Jonas und der Wal

Jonas und der Wal
Jonas und der Wal, Universitätsmatrikel in Erfurt Justus Jonas auf einem Gemälde
Abgebildet ist auch der Erfurter Reformator Justus Jonas (oben knieend) - um 1550.

"Die Matrikelbücher der Universität Erfurt überliefern eine farbige Abbildung des Wappens, das Justus Jonas führte. Es stellt die Szene des Alten Testaments dar, die Jona zeigt, als er aus dem Maul des großen Fisches entsteigt: "Jona war drei Tage und drei Nächte im Bauch des Fisches, und er betete zum Herrn. Da befahl der dem Fisch, Jona an Land zu speien" (Jona 2).
Typologisch wird diese Szene auch im Neuen Testament bei Matthäus (12,40) auf Jesu Vorhersage seiner Auferstehung gedeutet: "Gleichwie Jona drei Tage im Bauch des Meeresfisches war, also wird der Menschensohn drei Tage und drei Nächte mitten in der Erde sein." Diese religiöse Symbolik dürfte dem Theologen Jonas sehr präsent gewesen sein."
© de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justus_Jonas_der_%C3%84ltere
Read more here
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# 40 Napoleon in Briars House at Saint Helena

Napoleon, Briars house, Saint-Helena
©:
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# 42 Manuscrit carolingien: La mer, lieu de passage des invasions

Manuscrit carolingien: La mer, lieu de passage des invasions
Tableaux de la vie de saint Aubin. Deuxième partie du XIe siècle. Manuscrit sur parchemin (25,5 x 18,5 cm) BNF, Manuscrits, NAL 1390, f. 7

À peu près contemporaine de la tapisserie de Bayeux, cette représentation d´une barque normande allant assiéger Guérande surprend par la détermination des guerriers, peu sensibles &qgrave; la fragilité et au délabrement de leur embarcation (mâon;ture brisée et voiles déchirées) ni à l'état de la mer, pourtant formée. Sur une mer très stylisée, le nombre des hommes en armes, debout sur plusieurs rangées, suffit à exprimer l´importance de l'expédition.
©: expositions.bnf.fr/lamer/grand/010.htm
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# 44 Alexander is Lowered into the Sea

Alexander is Lowered into the Sea
Date: 1597-98 Medium: Main support: Ink, watercolor, gold on paper Margins: Gold on dyed paper
"Alexander is Lowered into the Sea", Folio from a Khamsa (Quintet) of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi Amir Khusrau Dihlavi (1253-1325).
©: MET, NYC
Diving bells and Observation chambers: www.divingheritage.com/chambers.htm, www.divingmuseum.org/tag/dr-edmund-halley/ tags: 

# 45 Neptune

Neptune, Neptunes
The planet Neptune was named after a Roman god of the sea. Many of the moons were named after lower ranked Greek or Roman gods.
The story of Neptune goes like this:
Ops the Earth Mother and Saturn the Farmer had three sons. One day Saturn attempted to kill his sons but they fought back. Neptune’s brother Jupiter took Saturn’s place over the sky. Pluto took place over the underworld, and Neptune took charge of the sea.
Neptune is often seen riding a chariot over the sea holding a trident which is a three-pronged spear.
©: picture Library of Congress
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# 46 Adriaens Vischboek

Adriaens Vischboek
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# 50 Age of Empires

Age of Empires
©www.wallpaperswide.com tags: 

# 51

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# 52 test

winterscene ©:
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u- jan-van-riebeeck
name: drommedaris.tif
the 'Drommedaris' (Dromedary), Jan van Riebeeck's ship on which he sailed to Cape of Good Hope.
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name: jan-van-riebeeck-landing.tif
The Landing of Jan van Riebeeck (1619-77),the Dutch in Cape Of Good Hope,South Africa in 6th April 1652 . The Khoikhoi (Hottentots) in the painting were the first Africans to meet them http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.nl/2013/06/the-khoikhoi-hottentots-first-people-of.html Migratory Khoi bands living around what is today Cape Town intermarried with San. However the two groups remained culturally distinct as the Khoikhoi continued to graze livestock and the San subsisted as hunter-gatherers. The Khoi were the first South Africans/blacks to come into contact with European explorers and merchants in approximately AD 1500. The ongoing encounters were often violent. When the Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Diaz went ashore on Mossel Bay in February 1488,probably the first time the Khoikhoi had seen the whites. An altercation followed and the Khoikhoi herders withdrew. The mariners proceeded along the coast, planting the first wooden cross, a sign of their devotion to the Christian God, on the island of St. Croix in Algoa Bay. Christianity was to feature in every stage of the ensuing European colonization process. Vasco da Gama landed in St Helena Bay almost ten years later in 1497. Several of his party were wounded in an encounter with the Khoikhoi. Sailing further, they reached Angra de Sao Bras (now Mossel Bay) where they erected a cross and reported meeting native people who rode on cattle, played flutes, danced and wore ivory armlets. On Christmas Day they discovered a safe port further up the coast, which they named Port Natal. From 1500 Portuguese fleets frequently rounded the Cape, but chose to use Angolan and Mozambican ports as refueling posts. Thus it was accidentally that Antonio de Saldanha entered Table Bay in 1503. Attacked and wounded in an encounter with the Khoikhoi, he sailed on. Francisco d’Almeida (the first Portuguese viceroy in India) was, in turn, killed after going ashore in Table Bay in 1510.
Charles Davidson Bell 1813 - 1882- Jan van Riebeeck se aankoms aan die Kaap.jpg
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# 54a

--2potviswicked570 ©:
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--4seanredam570 ©:
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--3matham570 ©:
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# 55

-1zeilwagen1608 ©:
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# 57 Pearl of Wisdom

Gregor Reisch’s popular sixteenth-century text book, Margarita philosophica (“pearl of wisdom”). ©:
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# 71 Toscanelli´s map for Christopher Columbus

Toscanelli map Christopher Columbus
In 1474 Toscanelli sent a letter and a map to his Portuguese correspondent Fernão Martins, priest at the Lisbon Cathedral, detailing a scheme for sailing westwards to reach the Spice Islands and Asia. Fernão Martins delivered his letter to the King Afonso V of Portugal, in his court of Lisbon. The original of this letter was lost, but its existence is known through Toscanelli himself, who later transcribed it along with the map and sent it to Christopher Columbus, who carried them with him during his first voyage to the new world.[citation needed] Toscanelli had miscalculated the size of the earth which resulted in Columbus not realizing initially he had found a new continent.
©: Wikipedia
tags: Columbus, Toscanelli, map