# 02 Katsushika Hokusai " the Great Wave of Kanagawa"
The Great Wave off Kanagawa (Kanagawa Oki Nami Ura, lit. "In the well of a wave off Kanagawa"), also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was published sometime between 1830 and 1833
c. 1829-32, color woodcut, 25.7 cm x 37.8 cm (10.1 in x 14.9 in)
The Book: Stillman, S. (1912). The Cephalopoda of the Hawaiian Islands. From Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 32, 1912.
The Artist: J.H. Emerton "Eledone Verrugosa".
This class contains the cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. The giant squid is the largest of all mollusks. Most cephalopods are highly adapted for swimming. The body mass is very tall. There is no foot; the lower part of the body wall is drawn out to form a ring of arms, or tentacles, around the head. Among living cephalopods, only the nautilus (subclass Nautiloidea) has a complete external shell; extinct members of the subclass and the extinct ammonites (subclass Ammonoidea) had similar spiral shells. Members of the subclass Coleoidea (the squid, cuttlefish, and octopus), have an internal shell or no shell at all.
All cephalopods are carnivorous and possess a radula and powerful beaks. The nervous system and the sense of vision are highly developed. In most cephalopods the sexes are separate and reproduction requires copulation. Fertilization may occur inside or outside the mantle cavity. Cephalopods are worldwide in distribution and are found in all depths of the ocean. They are an important food staple for many animals, including humans.
Flying fish can be seen jumping out of warm ocean waters worldwide. Their streamlined torpedo shape helps them gather enough underwater speed to break the surface, and their large, wing-like pectoral fins get them airborne.
Read more: animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/flying-fish/
Flying fish actually glide rather than truly fly. They launch themselves into the air by beating the tail very fast and spreading their pectoral fins to use as wings. There are 52 different species of flying fish which are found in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Flying_fish tags:
Lamarck - Sea Urchins (detail) Jean Baptiste (Pierre Antoine) de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck [1744-1829], Echinus 136 -Tableau Encyclopédique et Méthodique des Trois Regnes de la Nature, Paris 1791-1798. From the pattern library of WikiMechanics.org. Photograph by D Dunlop.
Simon Stevin built two land-yachts for Prince Maurice. He used them on the beach to entertain his guests.
Toujours en Hollande fin du 16 ème siècle, l'ingénieur Simon Stevin entre au service du comte Maurice de Nassau. C´est alors "Stevin l´ingénieur" qui s´illustre par des inventions remarquables. La plus spectaculaire est le char à voiles qui avec une trentaine de passagers parcourt près de 80km en deux heures sur les plages de la mer du Nord de Scheveningen à Petten. Histoire du char à voile
Different image: Currus Veliferi Illmi. Pr. Mauritii Nassouvii. (Prince Maurits' sailing-carriage, designed by Simon Stevin). Map maker : BLAEU, J. Amsterdam, 1649:
Prince Maurits' sailing carriages had been designed by Simon Stevin. The Prince, always accessible to new inventions of his old instructor, could not please the foreign ambassadors more than by inviting them for a ride in his carriage.
The big sailing-carriage could seat 28 persons and could reach a speed of seven miles per hour.
Land sailing : The Chinese had "wind-driven carriages" since the 6th century AD, during the Liang Dynasty, and eventually mounted masts and sails on large wheelbarrows.The earliest text describing the Chinese use of mounting masts and sails on large vehicles is the Book of the Golden Hall Master written by the Daoist scholar and crown prince Xiao Yi, who later became Emperor Yuan of Liang (r. 552-554 AD).He wrote that Gaocang Wushu invented a "wind-driven carriage" which was able to carry thirty people at once.There was another built in about 610 for the Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604-617), as described in the Continuation of the New Discourses on the Talk of the Times. http://www.swaen.com/antique-map-of.php?id=17305 tags:
# 25 Christopher Columbus by Marie-Madeleine Gérard
Christopher Columbus, Italian Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish Cristóbal Colón (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa [Italy]- died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain), master navigator and admiral whose four transatlantic voyages (1492-'93, 1493-'96, 1498-'1500, and 1502-'04) opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the "discoverer" of the New World, although Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries earlier. Columbus made his transatlantic voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. He was at first full of hope and ambition, an ambition partly gratified by his title "Admiral of the Ocean Sea", awarded to him in April 1492, and by the grants enrolled in the Book of Privileges (a record of his titles and claims); however, he died a disappointed man. www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127070/Christopher-Columbus
The sea bishop or bishop-fish was a type of sea monster reported in the 16th century. According to legend, it was taken to the King of Poland, who wished to keep it. It was also shown to a group of Catholic bishops, to whom the bishop-fish gestured, appealing to be released. They granted its wish, at which point it made the sign of the cross and disappeared into the sea.
Another was supposedly captured in the ocean near Germany in 1531. It refused to eat and died after three days. It was described and pictured in the fourth volume of Conrad Gesner's famous Historiae animalium.
One of the earliest records of bewitching sea-women appears in the Odyssey, where Ulysses, the hero of Homer´s epic poem, is warned by the sorceress Circe about the sirens whose singing lures sailors to a grisly death shipwrecked on the rocks. Odysseus convinces his crew to stuff wax in their ears so that the mesmerizing song won´t affect them, but has himself tied to the mast and more or less goes ballistic listening. The earliest ceramic paintings depict the sirens as women with the wings of sparrows, but in later folklore this image was changed to one closer resembling a modern mermaid (as in the 1909 painting by Herbert James Draper, above). The word itself survives in the Latin root for the words for mermaid in languages such as Italian (sirena) and French (sirene).
Hand-tinted map of the Island of Utopia from A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia by Thomas Moore, 1516
Utopia, or the land of nowhere, is undoubtedly the most famous work of Thomas More (Tomas More). The idea was to create a perfect world where all men are equal and maintain an idyllic relationship with their natural surroundings. The book was born of accounts by navigator and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci) and referred to the volcanic archipelago Fernando de Noronha, currently located in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Since its early editions we can see illustrations (maps) of this imagined territory.
Utopia Island, Agustana Library, 1516 edition tags:
the 'Drommedaris' (Dromedary), Jan van Riebeeck's ship on which he sailed to Cape of Good Hope.
1815 AC Alkmaar